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■ Native SQL queries, including stored procedure calls, where Hibernate still takes care of mapping the JDBC result sets to graphs of persistent objects.

In your Hibernate or JPA application, you use a combination of these techniques.

Each retrieval method may use a different plan and strategy—that is, a plan that defines what part of the persistent object network should be retrieved and how it should be retrieved.

Your goal is to find the best retrieval method and fetching strategy for every use case in your application; at the same time, you also want to minimize the number of SQL queries for best performance.

Let’s go straight to the more flexible query options, HQL (equivalent to JPA QL) and Criteria. The Hibernate Query Language is an object-oriented dialect of the familiar database query language SQL.

HQL bears some close resemblance to ODMG OQL, but unlike OQL, it’s adapted for use with SQL databases and is easier to learn (thanks to its close resemblance to SQL) and fully implemented (we don’t know of any OQL implementation that is complete).

Object state synchronization is the job of the persistence manager, not the developer.

But, as we’ve shown in the previous topic, HQL and JPA QL support direct bulk operations for updating, deleting, and inserting, if required by the use case (mass data operations).

Retrieving persistent objects from the database is one of the most interesting parts of working with Hibernate.

Hibernate provides the following ways to get objects out of the database: ■ Navigating the object graph, starting from an already loaded object, by accessing the associated objects through property accessor methods such as a Address()City(), and so on.

■ The Hibernate Query Language (HQL), which is a full object-oriented query language.

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