Which of the following principles are key to relative dating updating knob and tube wiring
Figure 8.6a A xenolith of diorite incorporated into a basalt lava flow, Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.The lava flow took place some time after the diorite cooled, was uplifted, and then eroded.
There are a few simple rules for doing this, some of which we’ve already looked at in Chapter 6.
For example, the principle of superposition states that sedimentary layers are deposited in sequence, and, unless the entire sequence has been turned over by tectonic processes or disrupted by faulting, the layers at the bottom are older than those at the top.
(Hammerhead for scale) [SE] Figure 8.6b Rip-up clasts of shale embedded in Gabriola Formation sandstone, Gabriola Island, B. The pieces of shale were eroded as the sandstone was deposited, so the shale is older than the sandstone.
[SE] The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that any geological feature that cuts across, or disrupts another feature must be younger than the feature that is disrupted.
The plane or junction, marked by the thick green line, between both sets of strata is the unconformity.
At Thornton Force the junction is marked by a basal conglomerate.
An example of this is given in Figure 8.7, which shows three different sedimentary layers.
The lower sandstone layer is disrupted by two faults, so we can infer that the faults are younger than that layer.
If the geological record was 100% complete and there were no breaks in sedimentation, the stratigrapher's job would be an easy one.
However, breaks in sedimentation do occur and when this happens, geologists' refer to this missing strata as an unconformity.
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